A navy captain who served in the army for 30 years said there was a broad consensus among soldiers that “torture is bad.” Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families January 2010 A report by the Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families Coalition that documents some of the scientific evidence and economic analysis that underpin their position that, by reforming the TSCA, we can reduce our exposure to toxic chemicals, improve the health of our country, and reduce the cost of health care. Other anthropologists point to a number of practices that are considered morally acceptable in some societies but condemned in others, including infanticide, genocide, polygamy, racism, sexism and torture. Such differences may lead us to wonder whether there are universal moral principles or whether morality is only a matter of “cultural taste.” Differences in moral practices between cultures raise an important question in ethics – the concept of “ethical relativism.” Curtis told the Times that the jury, made up of senior military officials, had no sympathy for the man or his actions, but that the torture he described was a “mitigating factor.” He said he wrote the letter within 20 minutes of the verdict and offered the other jurors to sign it, with seven of the eight doing so. To do this, the bill would largely reverse the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as it applies to certain forest management decisions. NEPA opens the door to public participation in important federal actions. One person`s “incriminating environmental assessment” is the open and responsible government of another person. It is also argued that some moral beliefs may be culturally relative, while others are not. Some practices, such as dress customs and decency, may depend on local customs, while other practices such as slavery, torture or political oppression may be governed by universal moral norms and may be misjudged despite the many other differences that exist between cultures. Just because some practices are relative does not mean that all practices are relative. The bill was approved by the House Natural Resources Committee. It can be voted on very soon, perhaps by the time you read this. If it cannot be passed as a stand-alone law, it is possible that its provisions may be attached to the Farm Bill.
The Farm Bill refinances and approves many agricultural programs. Although its exact language is the subject of lobbying, negotiations, etc. every year, it affects so much of the economy that it is considered a law “must be passed.” For these philosophers, ethics is an examination of good and evil through a critical examination of the reasons underlying practices and beliefs. As a theory to justify moral practices and beliefs, ethical relativism does not recognize that some societies have better reasons to defend their views than others. Most ethicists reject the theory of ethical relativism. Some argue that while the moral practices of corporations may be different, the basic moral principles underlying those practices are not. For example, in some societies, it was common to kill parents after they reached a certain age and stemmed from the belief that people in the afterlife were better off when they entered it while being physically active and vigorous. Although such a practice is condemned in our society, we would agree with these societies on the underlying moral principle – the duty to care for parents. Societies can therefore differ in their application of basic moral principles, but agree on the principles.
Other philosophers criticize ethical relativism for its implications for individual moral beliefs. These philosophers assert that if the correctness or falsity of an action depends on the norms of a society, it follows that one must obey the norms of one`s society and deviate from those norms is to act immorally. That is, if I am a member of a society that believes that racist or sexist practices are morally permissible, then I must accept those practices as morally correct. But such a vision promotes social conformity and leaves no room for moral reform or improvement in a society. In addition, members of the same society may have different views on practices. In the United States, for example, there are a variety of moral views on issues ranging from animal testing to abortion. What constitutes just action if there is no social consensus? “I think you`ll find that your older adults fully understand that acts like torture do more harm in the long run than good if they do something right,” Captain Scott B. Curtis told The New York Times. Curtis spoke with The Times` Carol Rosenberg last week and revealed himself to be the author of a letter signed by a military jury condemning the CIA`s use of torture. Perhaps the strongest argument against ethical relativism comes from those who claim that universal moral norms can exist, even though some moral practices and beliefs vary from culture to culture.
In other words, we can recognize cultural differences in moral practices and beliefs and still claim that some of these practices and beliefs are morally wrong. The practice of slavery in American society before the Civil War or the practice of apartheid in South Africa is bad, despite the beliefs of these societies. The treatment of Jews in Nazi society is morally reprehensible, regardless of the moral beliefs of Nazi society. Curtis told the Times that he thinks the U.S. “is still the good guys, for lack of a better term, around the world,” but that “we certainly make mistakes.” He also said the letter “does not condemn the current military and the current CIA.” While there is a broad consensus in the scientific community on the inclusion of plagiarism as a key element of PHS`s definition of scientific misconduct, there is some uncertainty as to how the definition of plagiarism is applied even in ORI cases. As a general working definition, ORI considers plagiarism to be both the theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the essential copy of unannounced text of someone else`s work. It does not include disputes relating to paternity or credit. Theft or misappropriation of intellectual property involves the unauthorized use of unique ideas or methods obtained through privileged communication, such as .
B a scholarship or manuscript review. The substantial copy of unregistered text of someone else`s work means the literal or almost literal unregistered copy of sentences and paragraphs that significantly mislead the ordinary reader with regard to the author`s contributions. ORI generally does not pursue the limited use of identical or nearly identical expressions that describe a commonly used methodology or previous research, as ORI does not consider such use to be materially misleading to the reader or of great importance. Many allegations of plagiarism involve disputes between former employees who were jointly involved in the development or execution of a research project, but then separated and independently used the jointly developed concepts, methods, descriptive language or other products of the joint effort. Intellectual property ownership in many of these situations is rarely clear, and the history of collaboration between scientists often supports the hypothesis of implied consent to the use of the products of the collaboration by one of the former employees. .